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The heads move across the tape at the high speed necessary to record the high-bandwidth video signal, but the tape moves at a slower speed through the machine. In addition, three ordinary tracks are recorded along the edge of the tape by stationary recording heads. For correct playback, the motion of the heads has to be precisely synchronized with the motion of the tape through the capstan, so a control track of synchronizing pulses is recorded. The other two tracks are for the audio channel and a cuing track.
The early machines use the Ampex 2 inch quadruplex system in which the drum has 4 heads and rotates at 14, RPM perpendicular to the tape, so the recorded tracks are transverse to the tape axis. The helical scan methods use a recording drum with a diagonal axis of rotation. This allows an entire frame to be recorded per track. This simplifies the electronics and timing systems.
It also allows the recorder to be paused freeze-framed during playback to display a single still frame, by simply stopping the tape transport mechanism, allowing the tape heads to repeatedly pass over the same track. This recording technique has many potential sources of timing errors. If the mechanism runs at an absolutely constant speed, and never varies from moment to moment, or from the time of recording to the time of playback, then the timing of the playback signal is exactly the same as the input.
However, imperfection being inevitable, the timing of the playback always differs to some extent from the original signal. Longitudinal error error arising from effects in the long direction of the tape can be caused by variations in the rotational rate of the capstan drive, stretching of the tape medium, and jamming of tape in the machine.
Transverse error error arising from effects in the cross-tape direction can be caused by variations in the rotational speed of the scanning drum and differences in the angle between the tape and the scanning heads usually addressed by video tracking controls. Longitudinal errors are similar to the ones that cause wow and flutter in audio recordings.
Since these errors are not so subtle and since it is standard video recording practice to record a parallel control track, these errors are detected and servos are adjusted accordingly to dramatically reduce this problem.
Many of the deficiencies of the open-reel systems were overcome with the invention of the videocassette recorder VCR , where the videotape is enclosed in a user-friendly videocassette shell. This subsequently became the most familiar type of VTR known to consumers.
In this system, the tape is preattached onto two reels enclosed within the cassette, and tape loading and unloading is automated. There is no need for the user to ever touch the tape, and the media can be protected from dust, dirt, and tape misalignments that can foul the recording mechanism.
Typically, the only time the user ever touches the tape in a videocassette is when a failure results from a tape getting stuck in the mechanism. Betamax sales eventually began to dwindle, and after several years VHS emerged as the winner of the format war. In , Sony began to market its own VHS machines, and despite claims that it was still backing Beta, it was clear that the format was no longer viable in most parts of the world.
In parts of South America and in Japan , Betamax continued to be popular and was still in production up to the end of Later developments saw analog magnetic tapes largely replaced by digital video tape formats. Following this, much of the VTR market, in particular videocassettes and VCRs popular at the consumer level, were also replaced by non-tape media, such as DVD and later Blu-ray optical discs. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see VTR disambiguation. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
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Engine oil intake - in good shape - straight - works fine. Edit Symbol List Symbol Lookup. Go Now Clear List. Key Stock Data 1 Year Target. Intraday Last 52 Weeks High: Data reflects weightings calculated at the beginning of each month. Data is subject to change.
Where does VTR fit in the risk graph?