Iranian Journal of Public Health. Biological divisions based on the Y-Chromosome, a non-recombinant sex chromosome inherited paternally.
Clarke because of his avid interest in butterflies. He appreciated that the method of inheritance of certain protective wing patterns in butterflies is similar to that of Rh blood groups. Clarke assigned his student, Dr. Ronald Finn, to extend the studies of Dr.
Philip Levine, who had observed that, when there is an ABO blood type incompatibility between mother and child, an Rh-negative mother runs a smaller risk of having a child with Rh disease. Undaunted by the skepticism of their colleagues, Dr. Finn showed, in a clinical trial in , that anti-Rh antibody, given at delivery to an Rh-negative mother, does protect her next child from Rh disease. To Professor Sir Cyril Clarke, for illuminating the genetics of Rh antigen and for initiating and guiding research leading to the potential conquest of hemolytic disease of the newborn, this Albert Lasker Clinical Medical Research Award is given.
Finn began the first prospective study of the relation between ABO blood type and Rh antigen incompatibilities. By monitoring the blood of Rh-negative mothers during pregnancy and after delivery, he established that fetal red blood cells enter the mother's blood stream usually at delivery and that, when the fetus and the mother are ABO-incompatible, the mother's immune system destroys the cells before she can become sensitized to Rh antigen.
Finn postulated that if an Rh-negative mother was given anti-Rh antibody soon enough, any fetal red blood cells in her circulation would be inactivated before her immune system could become sensitized to the Rh antigen.
In , he was the first Rh investigator to suggest this at a scientific meeting. Using crude semen from sensitized Rh-negative donors, he showed that sensitization could be prevented in Rh-negative male volunteers. Experiments with pure anti-Rh antibody, given by American investigators who were independently pursuing similar research, confirmed these findings. Clarke proved their point in a carefully designed clinical trial among high-risk Rh-negative women. For his multifaceted research into the mechanism protecting the unborn child from immunologic attack during pregnancy, for discovering how the weakness of these mechanisms can lead to hemolytic disease of the newborn, and for his vital contributions to the development of the anti-Rh vaccine, this Albert Lasker Clinical Medical Research Award is given.
Vincent Freda From his first-hand experience in delivering babies who were ill, anemic, brain-damaged or threatened with death because of Rh-incompatibility with their mothers, Dr. Freda determined as a young obstetrician to seek means of preventing Rh disease.
From his mentor, Dr. Freda acquired the insight that the disease arose from immunological origins that could be controlled once they were understood. While searching for clues, Dr. Freda endeavored to help Rh-afflicted infants in every way possible at the time, thus becoming a pioneer in fetalogy. He established the first clinic for Rh-negative mothers, and introduced such techniques as amniocentesis and intrauterine blood transfusions in the United States. Freda deduced that if anti-Rh antibody were given at the time of delivery, it would block sensitization and prevent Rh disease in the woman's next Rh-positive child.
Although his colleagues scorned the idea, Dr. Gorman set out to test this brilliantly simple concept, using pure antibody supplied by Dr. It was tested first among volunteers at Sing Sing penitentiary, and in a limited study among previously unsensitized Rh-negative women. It was immediately clear that the vaccine was effective and by , it was evident that Dr.
Freda's compassionate determination had led to an advance which could save the lives of thousands of newborn children. Freda, for his abiding concern for the mothers and unborn children in his care, which impelled him to seek an answer to hemolytic disease of the newborn, this Albert Lasker Clinical Medical Research Award is given. Gorman worked intimately with the problems of Rh disease, performing serological and immunological tests and supplying emergency blood transfusions to babies suffering from hemolytic disease of the newborn.
He was drawn into research on Rh disease by Dr. Vincent Freda, and came to share the conviction that the ravages of Rh incompatibility could be prevented by immunologic means. P-P needs Big Y. Discussion of natural science outside of a human context i. Forum area for the discussion of genetics and anthropology topics in both English and languages specific to each domain.
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