2018 FIFA World Cup

 


All times listed below are local time. Free public transport services were offered for ticketholders during the World Cup, including additional trains linking between host cities, as well as services such as bus service within them.

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In October , Russia decreased the number of stadiums from 16 to Construction of the proposed Podolsk stadium in the Moscow region was cancelled by the regional government, and also in the capital, Otkrytiye Arena was competing with Dynamo Stadium over which would be constructed first.

The final choice of host cities was announced on 29 September The number of cities was further reduced to 11 and number of stadiums to 12 as Krasnodar and Yaroslavl were dropped from the final list. Sepp Blatter stated in July that, given the concerns over the completion of venues in Russia, the number of venues for the tournament may be reduced from 12 to He also said, "We are not going to be in a situation, as is the case of one, two or even three stadiums in South Africa , where it is a problem of what you do with these stadiums".

They were satisfied with the progress. Of the twelve venues used, the Luzhniki Stadium in Moscow and the Saint Petersburg Stadium — the two largest stadiums in Russia — were used most, both hosting seven matches.

Sochi, Kazan, Nizhny Novgorod and Samara all hosted six matches, including one quarter-final match each, while the Otkrytiye Stadium in Moscow and Rostov-on-Don hosted five matches, including one round-of match each.

Volgograd, Kaliningrad, Yekaterinburg and Saransk all hosted four matches, but did not host any knockout stage games. Base camps were used by the 32 national squads to stay and train before and during the World Cup tournament. Costs continued to balloon as preparations were underway. Platov International Airport in Rostov-on-Don was upgraded with automated air traffic control systems, modern surveillance, navigation, communication, control, and meteorological support systems.

Saransk Airport received a new navigation system; the city also got two new hotels, Mercure Saransk Centre Accor Hotels and Four Points by Sheraton Saransk Starwood Hotels as well as few other smaller accommodation facilities.

The last facility commissioned was a waste treatment station in Volgograd. In Yekaterinburg, where four matches are hosted, hosting costs increased to over 7. Preference, especially in the key areas, was given to those with knowledge of foreign languages and volunteering experience, but not necessarily to Russian nationals.

Free public transport services were offered for ticketholders during the World Cup, including additional trains linking between host cities, as well as services such as bus service within them.

The full schedule was announced by FIFA on 24 July without kick-off times, which were confirmed later. Russia was placed in position A1 in the group stage and played in the opening match at the Luzhniki Stadium in Moscow on 14 June against Saudi Arabia , the two lowest-ranked teams of the tournament at the time of the final draw.

The Krestovsky Stadium in Saint Petersburg hosted the first semi-final on 10 July and the third place play-off on 14 July. The opening ceremony took place on Thursday, 14 June , at the Luzhniki Stadium in Moscow, preceding the opening match of the tournament between hosts Russia and Saudi Arabia.

Former Brazilian World Cup-winning striker Ronaldo walked out with a child wearing a Russia shirt. English pop singer Robbie Williams then performed two songs before he and Russian soprano Aida Garifullina performed a duet while other performers emerged, dressed in the flags of all 32 teams and carrying a sign bearing the name of each nation. Dancers were also present. Competing countries were divided into eight groups of four teams groups A to H. Teams in each group played one another in a round-robin basis, with the top two teams of each group advancing to the knockout stage.

Ten European teams and four South American teams progressed to the knockout stage, together with Japan and Mexico. For the first time since , Germany reigning champions did not advance past the first round. For the first time since , no African team progressed to the second round. For the first time, the fair play criteria came into use, when Japan qualified over Senegal due to having received fewer yellow cards. Only one match, France v Denmark, was goalless.

Until then there were a record 36 straight games in which at least one goal was scored. All times listed below are local time. The ranking of teams in the group stage was determined as follows: In the knockout stages, if a match is level at the end of normal playing time, extra time is played two periods of 15 minutes each and followed, if necessary, by a penalty shoot-out to determine the winners.

If a match went into extra time, each team was allowed to make a fourth substitution, the first time this had been allowed in a FIFA World Cup tournament. Twelve own goals were scored during the tournament, doubling the record of six set in In total, only four players were sent off in the entire tournament, the fewest since A player is automatically suspended for the next match for the following offences: The following awards were given at the conclusion of the tournament.

The award was sponsored by Hyundai. FIFA also published an alternate team of the tournament based on player performances evaluated through statistical data. Prize money amounts were announced in October The tournament logo was unveiled on 28 October by cosmonauts at the International Space Station and then projected onto Moscow's Bolshoi Theatre during an evening television programme.

Russian Sports Minister Vitaly Mutko said that the logo was inspired by "Russia's rich artistic tradition and its history of bold achievement and innovation", and FIFA President Sepp Blatter stated that it reflected the "heart and soul" of the country.

The official mascot for the tournament was unveiled 21 October , and selected through a design competition among university students. A public vote was used to select from three finalists—a cat, a tiger, and a wolf.

The first phase of ticket sales started on 14 September , The general visa policy of Russia did not apply to participants and spectators, who were able to visit Russia without a visa right before and during the competition regardless of their citizenship. A Fan-ID was required to enter the country visa-free, while a ticket, Fan-ID and a valid passport were required to enter stadiums for matches. Fan-IDs also granted World Cup attendees free access to public transport services, including buses, and train service between host cities.

Fan-ID was administered by the Ministry of Digital Development, Communications and Mass Media , who could revoke these accreditations at any time to "ensure the defence capability or security of the state or public order". The official match ball of the World Cup group stage was " Telstar 18 ", based on the name and design of the first Adidas World Cup ball from It was introduced on 9 November After the group stage, "Telstar Mechta" was used for the knockout stage.

The word mechta Russian: The difference between Telstar 18 and Mechta is the red details on the design. Its music video was released on 8 June Thirty-three footballers who are alleged to be part of the steroid program are listed in the McLaren Report. The choice of Russia as host has been challenged. Controversial issues have included the level of racism in Russian football, [] [] [] and discrimination against LGBT people in wider Russian society.

Allegations of corruption in the bidding processes for the and World Cups caused threats from England's FA to boycott the tournament. Garcia , a US attorney, to investigate and produce a report on the corruption allegations.

Eckert's summary cleared Russia and Qatar of any wrongdoing, but was denounced by critics as a whitewash. On 3 June , the FBI confirmed that the federal authorities were investigating the bidding and awarding processes for the and World Cups.

In response to the March poisoning of Sergei and Yulia Skripal , British Prime Minister Theresa May announced that no British ministers or members of the royal family would attend the World Cup, and issued a warning to any travelling England fans. The British Foreign Office and MPs had repeatedly warned English football fans and "people of Asian or Afro-Caribbean descent" travelling to Russia of "racist or homophobic intimidation, hooligan violence and anti-British hostility".

At the close of the World Cup Russia was widely praised for its success in hosting the tournament, with Steve Rosenberg of the BBC deeming it "a resounding public relations success" for Putin, adding, "The stunning new stadiums, free train travel to venues and the absence of crowd violence has impressed visiting supporters. Russia has come across as friendly and hospitable: All the foreign fans I have spoken to are pleasantly surprised.

FIFA President Gianni Infantino stated, "Everyone discovered a beautiful country, a welcoming country, that is keen to show the world that everything that has been said before might not be true. A lot of preconceived ideas have been changed because people have seen the true nature of Russia. The elimination of the US national team in qualifying led to concerns that US interest and viewership of this World Cup would be reduced especially among "casual" viewers interested in the US team , especially noting how much Fox paid for the rights, and that US games at the World Cup peaked at During a launch event prior to the elimination, Fox stated that it had planned to place a secondary focus on the Mexican team in its coverage to take advantage of their popularity among US viewers factoring Hispanic and Latino Americans.

Fox stated that it was still committed to broadcasting a significant amount of coverage for the tournament. In February , Ukrainian rightsholder UA: PBC stated that it would not broadcast the World Cup. This came in the wake of growing boycotts of the tournament among the Football Federation of Ukraine and sports minister Ihor Zhdanov. Broadcast rights to the tournament in the Middle East were hampered by an ongoing diplomatic crisis in Qatar over alleged support of extremist groups.

Qatar is the home country of the region's rightsholder, beIN Sports. On 2 June , beIN pulled its channels from Du and Etisalat , but with service to the latter restored later that day. Etisalat subsequently announced that it would air the World Cup in the UAE, and continue to offer beIN normally and without interruptions. On 12 July , FIFA stated that it "has engaged counsel to take legal action in Saudi Arabia and is working alongside other sports rights owners that have also been affected to protect its interests.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other competitions of that name, see World Cup disambiguation. For the video game, see FIFA Not a FIFA member. Bronnitsy , Moscow Oblast Australia: Kazan , Republic of Tatarstan Belgium: Krasnogorsky , Moscow Oblast Brazil: Sochi , Krasnodar Krai Colombia: Verkhneuslonsky , Republic of Tatarstan Costa Rica: Roshchino , Leningrad Oblast [79] Denmark: Anapa , Krasnodar Krai Egypt: Grozny , Chechen Republic England: Repino , Saint Petersburg [80] France: Istra , Moscow Oblast Germany: Vatutinki , Moscow [81] Iceland: Gelendzhik , Krasnodar Krai Iran: In manchen Ländern wie den USA [16] kann die Zerstörung von Zahlungsmitteln strafbar sein, beispielsweise wenn durch die Zerstörung die Abbildung eines Staatsoberhauptes oder geschützte Symbole beschädigt werden und eine solche Beschädigung strafbar ist.

Geld ist, was Geldfunktion erfüllt. Im Alltag sind dies heute vor allem Münzen und Banknoten. Entwickelt haben sich die heutigen Geldformen aus Primitivgeld , z. Muscheln oder Reis, die im Geschäftsleben als Tauschmittel akzeptiert wurden.

Erst nach dem Jahrhunderts existierte in vielen Ländern der Goldstandard bei dem der Umtausch von gesetzlichen Zahlungsmitteln Münzen, Banknoten in eine feststehende Menge Gold versprochen wurde.

Etliche Bezeichnungen stammen aus dem Wortfeld Brennstoff , stehen also stellvertretend für die Tatsache, dass mit Geld Dinge erworben werden können, die die Wärme und Energie für das Leben liefern, so etwa:. Synonyme Bezeichnungen für Geld stehen auch in Zusammenhang mit Lebensmitteln, die also den Brennstoff für die körperliche Energie darstellen und so stellvertretend für das Geld stehen, mit dem die Grundbedürfnisse des Lebens befriedigt werden können.

In vielen Kulturen war oder ist daher die Menge an vorhandener Nahrung, in erster Linie Getreide oder Vieh, auch gleichbedeutend mit dem Wohlstand einer Person, und Tiere gelten dort auch als Einheitswert für den Tauschhandel. Einige weitere, oft auch nur regional, zeitlich begrenzt oder von bestimmten Personengruppen verwendete Benennungen verschiedenen Ursprungs sind:.

Für bestimmte Geldwerte werden vorwiegend lautliche Varianten und Verballhornungen der entsprechenden Zahlwörter gebildet oder stehen meist in anderem unmittelbaren Zusammenhang mit dem jeweiligen Geldstück bzw.

Bei volkstümlichen Bezeichnungen für bestimmte Währungen wird oft ein scherzhafter Charakter offenkundig. Mit solchen neuen Wörtern ist aber vielfach nicht nur die Währung als solche gemeint, sondern das stoffliche Äquivalent, also Münze oder Schein, und der Wert 1 dieser Währung.

Daher wird in solchen Fällen der Ausdruck in erster Linie gemeinsam mit einem Zahlwort verwendet. In Mythen und Märchen spielt auch das Geld eine Rolle. Die antike Sage, dass der kleinasiatische König Midas sich von den Göttern gewünscht habe, alles, was er berühre, solle zu Gold werden, und der deshalb zu verhungern und zu verdursten drohte, ist wahrscheinlich ein Echo der Tatsache, dass Münzgeld historisch zuerst in Lydien geprägt worden ist.

Lietaer näher beleuchtet werden. Gelderziehung vermittelt ein Verständnis für materielle Werte und den Wert von Arbeitsleistungen, ein Verständnis für numerische Geldbeträge und den Umgang mit Zahlungsmitteln aller Art sowie für nicht sichtbares Kapital und das Geldwesen insgesamt. Untersuchungen zufolge verschlechtert zunehmender Besitz das Sozialverhalten. Beachtenswert ist die wissenssoziologische Analyse Sohn-Rethels, dass die abstrakte Wertform , die das Geld seit seiner Einführung als Münzgeld im Lydien des 7.

Eine ökonomietheoretische und soziologische Aufarbeitung der historischen Befunde zu den Anfängen dieser Parallelentwicklung hat Othmar Franz Fett [23] geliefert. Zeichen- und wertetheoretisch wirksam und wichtig ist der früh von dem Philosophen und Begründer der Soziologie in Deutschland Ferdinand Tönnies ausgearbeitete Ansatz einer Loslösung der Begriffe aus einer natürlichen Denkungsart hin zu einer der Wissenschaft angemessenen Terminologie.

Daher kommt wie den Begriffen auch dem Geld Bedeutung zu. Die Bedeutung des Geldes als etwas, das nicht ist, sondern nur bedeutet und gilt , wird in der Banknote zum Zeichen materiellen Wertes, durch die Abkunft vom Metallgeld jedoch noch mitgedacht als Gegenstand. Lange dienten zur Sicherung des Geldwertes materielle Güter, insbesondere Gold. Daraus ergibt sich aber noch keine Äquivalenz von Materie und Geld, sondern hergestellt wurde nur ein Bezug von Geld zu dem Wert des Goldes.

Populär ist die Annahme, Geld könne mit Energie verglichen werden. Jedoch gälte dann der Energieerhaltungssatz, und Geld könnte weder entstehen noch vernichtet werden. In seiner Lehre von der Energie postulierte er, dass Geld das ökonomische Äquivalent niedriger Entropie sei.

Hierzu gehören auch die Beschreibung von Irreversibilität in der Ökonomie und ihre Bedeutung für Wechselkursmodelle. Oft traten in der Neuzeit ein Unbehagen über das Geld und ein damit verbundenes Gefühl von Ungerechtigkeit zutage. Es gab deshalb viele Entwürfe utopischer Gesellschaften, die ohne Geld auszukommen versuchten. Sie alle waren aber mit einer gemeinschaft sorientierten sittlichen Pflicht zur Arbeit verbunden, die die individuelle Freiheit einschränkte.

Anfänglich gab es bis in die Gegenwart hinein Stammes- und Volkswirtschaften , die ohne Geld auskamen. Solche Wirtschaftsformen sind als Naturalwirtschaft oder Subsistenzwirtschaft bekannt.

In diesen herrscht entweder eine Verteilwirtschaft in Stammeskulturen wird die Ernte gemeinschaftlich eingebracht und nach bestimmten Regeln an die Stammesmitglieder verteilt , oder es herrscht weitgehende Selbstversorgung , bei welcher kaum Handel und dann nur Tauschhandel getrieben werden. Soziologisch wird darauf verwiesen, dass die ursprüngliche Etablierung von gemünztem Geld im 6.

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